by Scot Nakagawa

When discussions of racism come up, folks are quick to remind me that race is not a real thing – it’s just a social construct. I agree. Race isn’t “real” in the sense that it’s not based in biology and it sure isn’t based on geographic difference. I mean, just check out Asia. What do Japan and Iran have in common other than some idea about the “Orient” invented by Europeans, right?

But this idea of race as a social construct is pretty academic. And folks often preface “social construct” with the word “just,” as if the fact that race isn’t natural (as in, from nature) means we can simply educate it away.

So let’s try that idea another way. Yes, race is a made up idea. But, based on that idea, we’ve built real structures, a whole society in fact, and the inequity created by those structures won’t go away just because we change our minds about race.

In this way, the idea of race is like one’s dream of a house. The dream is just an idea, but if you move from dream to blueprint and then from blueprint to construction, you end up with a real structure – a house, made of bricks and mortar (or wood and nails if you like). And, just like you can change your idea about your dream house but still be stuck in the one you built with your old blueprint, certain attitudinal norms about race can change without changing the structure of white supremacy.

In order for your old house to match your new ideas, you have to remodel or rebuild. In terms of race, what we have on our hands in the 21st century is less a remodel than a superficial renovation. Surfaces have changed, but, structurally speaking, things are, for the most part, the same.


Based on the idea of race, we in the U.S. have, for generations, created blueprints in the form of our Constitution, public policy, and social codes, often enforced with violence. Based on those blueprints, we’ve built real structures like suburbs, ghettos, corporations, whole industries.

The legacy of this history lives on in our politics and our economy. Practices such as convict leasing of Black prisoners and the wide array of racist codes and practices in the South and the North – codes like exclusionary covenants, Jim Crow laws, red lining, immigration quotas and exclusion, etc., – have accumulated through history to create a wealth gap between whites and people of colour that persists to this day and cannot be resolved unless we revisit this history and address its legacy.

Until that happens, the wealth gap will continue to be one indicator among many (home ownership rates, school segregation, the unemployment gap, etc.) of structural inequities as solid and consequential as that wall you wish you could get rid of between the kitchen and the dining room in your house.

I’m not trying to minimize the importance of voting rights protection and changing social mores. These things make a difference. But, structural inequality still exists because the changes we’ve won renovate, even improve, an existing structure that has built in inequities. And these improvements convince the folks that are the least affected by the structural problems that it’s fine in here, making those of us who continue to complain of real injustice look like a bunch of whiners.

So we’ve gotta focus on the structure. Giving too much credence to the ways in which society has (or hasn’t) been renovated rather than remodelled around race is a distraction. It allows us to avoid seeing and dealing with the need for change.

Scot Nakagawa is a 34 year veteran in the field of social justice. Scot was the first staff person of the Coalition for Human Dignity, an organization formed to combat vigilante white supremacist hate groups in the Pacific Northwest. He has also served as Field Director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Associate Director of the Western Prison Project (now the Partnership for Safety and Justice), educator on the staff of the Highlander Research and Education Center, and as an executive and philanthropic adviser in the field of social justice philanthropy. Scot has also been a literacy teacher, and has organized homeless shelters, and community-based food and medical assistance programs. Scot’s primary work in social change has been as a social movement analyst and organizational strategist. He is the publisher of the blog, Race Files , which addresses race and racism in U.S. politics and culture. @nakagawascot .

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6 thoughts on “The Blueprint of Structural Inequality

  1. cool place, but it starts after more than half the damage was done…their natural state isn’t different-one free, the other enslaved. there should be 3 more panels, at the start, that simply explain how the white person got the cuffs on the black one.


  2. Excellent post! You were able to make a difficult construct easier to understand. I may utilize your analogy of “a house” the next time I am struggling to break it down to students.


  3. Great stuff Scott! Race is indeed a social construct, but if people behave as if something is real, then it becomes real – like voodoo or religion. People really die over that stuff even though many may not believe in it. The example I like to use is the concept of time. Time is not a real thing. The time, the date, the month, the seasons are all social constructs. Despite what people say you cannot buy time, or make time, but we behave as if we can. If it was a real thing how could the time be different in different countries or a different year in different cultures. But if a group if people agree on what time/day/month it is, and adjust their behaviour accordingly, then we must all fall in line. You cannot live life according to your own clock and be a fully functioning member of society. Similarly, if people behave that race is a real thing (despite no basis in science) that makes it a real thing that affects peoples lives in a real way.
    Keep these good post coming


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